[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 184_DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS
SAFE--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS
Sec. 184.1588 Pectins.
(a) The pectins (CAS Reg. No. 9000-69-5) are a group of complex,
high molecular weight polysaccharides found in plants and composed
chiefly of partially methylated polygalacturonic acid units. Portions of
the carboxly group occur as methyl esters, and the remaining carboxyl
groups exist in the form of the free acid or as its ammonium, potassium,
or sodium (CAS Reg. No. 9000-59-8) salts, and in some types as the acid
amide. Thus, the pectins regulated in this section are the high-ester
pectins, low-ester pectins, amidated pectins, pectinic acids, and
pectinates. Pectin is produced commercially by extracting citrus peel,
apple pomace, or beet pulp with hot dilute acid (pH 1.0 to 3.5, 70[deg]
to 90 [deg]C). The extract is filtered, and pectin is then precipitated
from the clear extract with ethanol or isopropanol, or as the copper or
aluminum salt. The acid extract is sometimes spray- or roller-dried, or
it is concentrated to be sold as liquid pectin.
(b) The ingredients meet the specifications of the Food Chemical
Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 215, which is incorporated by reference. Copies
are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave.
NW., Washington, DC 20418, or available for inspection at the National
Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the
availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to:
(c) In accordance with Sec. 184.1(b)(1), the ingredients are used
in food with no limitation other than current good manufacturing
practice. The affirmation of these ingredients as generally recognized
as safe (GRAS) as direct human food ingredients is based upon the
following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use:
(1) The ingredients are used as emulsifiers as defined in Sec.
170.3(o)(8) of this chapter and as stabilizers and thickeners as defined
in Sec. 170.3(o)(28) of this chapter.
(2) The ingredients are used in food at levels not to exceed current
good manufacturing practice.
(d) Prior sanctions for these ingredients different from the uses
established in this section do not exist or have been waived.
[48 FR 51149, Nov. 7, 1983]
Additives that reference this regulation: