[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 3]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 173_SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN
CONSUMPTION--Table of Contents
Subpart C_Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances
Sec. 173.280 Solvent extraction process for citric acid.
A solvent extraction process for recovery of citric acid from
conventional Aspergillus niger fermentation liquor may be safely used to
produce food-grade citric acid in accordance with the following
(a) The solvent used in the process consists of a mixture of n-octyl
alcohol meeting the requirements of Sec. 172.864 of this chapter,
synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons meeting the requirements
of Sec. 172.882 of this chapter, and tridodecyl amine.
(b) The component substances are used solely as a solvent mixture
a manner that does not result in formation of products not present in
conventionally produced citric acid.
(c) The citric acid so produced meets the specifications of the
``Food Chemicals Codex,'' 3d Ed. (1981), pp. 86-87, which is
incorporated by reference (Copies may be obtained from the National
Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20418, or may
be examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA).
For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-
741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal--register/code--of--
federal--regulations/ibr--locations.html.), and the polynuclear aromatic
hydrocarbon specifications of Sec. 173.165.
(d) Residues of n-octyl alcohol and synthetic isoparaffinic
petroleum hydrocarbons are removed in accordance with good manufacturing
practice. Current good manufacturing practice results in residues not
exceeding 16 parts per million (ppm) n-octyl alcohol and 0.47 ppm
synthetic isoparaffinic petroleum hydrocarbons in citric acid.
(e) Tridodecyl amine may be present as a residue in citric acid at a
level not to exceed 100 parts per billion.
[42 FR 14491, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 49 FR 10106, Mar. 19, 1984]
Additives that reference this regulation: