[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 155_CANNED VEGETABLES--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables
Sec. 155.120 Canned green beans and canned wax beans.
(a) Identity--(1) Definition. Canned green beans and canned wax
beans are the foods prepared from succulent pods of fresh green bean or
wax bean plants conforming to the characteristics of Phaseolus vulgaris
L. and Phaseolus
coccineus L. The optional color and varietal types and styles of the
bean ingredient are set forth in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. The
product is packed with water or other suitable aqueous liquid medium to
which may be added one or more of the other optional ingredients set
forth in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Such food is so processed by
heat, in an appropriate manner before or after being sealed in a
container, as to prevent spoilage.
(2) Optional color and varietal types and styles of pack. The
optional color and varietal types and styles of the bean ingredient
referred to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section are:
(i) Optional color types. The beans shall be one of the following
distinct color types: (a) Green; or (b) Wax.
(ii) Optional varietal types--(a) Round. Beans having a width not
greater than 1\1/2\ times the thickness of the bean; or
(b) Flat. Beans having a width greater than 1\1/2\ times the
thickness of the bean.
(iii) Optional styles of pack--(a) Whole. Whole pods of any length.
(b) Shoestring or sliced lengthwise or French style. Pods sliced
(c) Cuts. Transversely cut pods not less than 19 mm (0.75 in) long
as measured along the longitudinal axis, which may contain the shorter
end pieces that result from cutting such pods.
(d) Short cuts. Pieces of pods cut transversely of which 75 percent,
by count, or more are less than 19 mm (0.75 in) in length and not more
than 1 percent by count are more than 32 mm (1\1/4\ in) in length.
(e) Diagonal cuts. Pods cut in lengths as specified in paragraph
(a)(2)(iii)(c) of this section, except the pods are cut at an angle
approximately 45[deg] to the longitudinal axis.
(f) Diagonal short cuts. Pods cut in lengths as specified in
paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(d) of this section, except the pods are cut at an
angle approximately 45[deg] to the longitudinal axis.
(g) Mixture. Any mixture of two or more of the styles specified in
paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(a) to (f), inclusive, of this section.
(3) Optional ingredients. In addition to the optional packing media
listed in paragraph (a)(1) of this section and the optional types and
styles of beans ingredient listed in paragraph (a)(2) of this section,
the following safe and suitable optional ingredients may be used:
(ii) Monosodium glutamate.
(iii) Disodium inosinate.
(iv) Disodium guanylate.
(v) Hydrolyzed vegetable protein.
(vi) Autolyzed yeast extract.
(vii) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners.
(ix) Flavoring (except artificial).
(x) Pieces of green or red peppers or mixtures of both, either of
which may be dried, or other vegetables not exceeding in total 15
percent by weight of the finished product.
(xii) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice.
(xiii) Glucono delta-lactone.
(xiv) Mint leaves.
(xv) Butter or margarine in a quantity of not less than 3 percent by
weight of the finished product. When butter or margarine is added,
emulsifiers or stabilizers, or both, may be added. No spice or flavoring
simulating the color or flavor imparted by butter or margarine is used.
(4) Labeling. (i) The name of the food is ``green beans'' or ``wax
beans'' as appropriate. Wax beans may be additionally designated
``golden'' or ``yellow''.
(ii) The following shall be included as part of the name or in
conjunction with the name of the food:
(a) A declaration of any flavoring that characterizes the product as
specified in Sec. 101.22 of this chapter.
(b) A declaration of any spice, seasoning, or garnishing that
characterizes the product, e.g., ``with added spice'', or, in lieu of
the word ``spice'', the common name of the spice, e.g., ``seasoned with
(c) The words ``vacuum pack'' or ``vacuum packed'' when the weight
of the liquid in the container, as determined by the method prescribed
in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section is not more than 25 percent of
the net weight, and the container is closed under conditions creating a
high vacuum in the container.
(d) The name of the optional style of bean ingredient as set forth
in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) of this section or, if a product consists of a
mixture of such styles, the words ``mixture of '' the blank to be filled
in with the names of the styles present, arranged in the order of
decreasing predominance, if any, by weight of such ingredients. If the
product consists of whole beans and the pods are packed parallel to the
sides of the container, the word ``whole'' may be preceded or followed
by the words ``vertical pack'', or if the pods are cut at both ends and
are of substantially equal lengths, the words ``asparagus style'' may be
used in lieu of the words ``vertical pack''. If the product consists of
short cuts or diagonal short cuts, a numerical expression indicating the
predominate length of cut in the finished food may be used in lieu of
the word ``short'', e.g., ``\1/2\ inch cut''.
(iii) The following may be included in the name of the food:
(a) The word ``stringless'' where the beans are in fact stringless.
(b) The name of the optional varietal type as specified in paragraph
(a)(2)(ii) of this section, or the specific varietal name, e.g., ``Blue
Lake Green Beans'', or both.
(iv) If a term designating diameter is used, it shall be supported
by an exact graphic representation of the cross section of the bean pod
or by a statement of the maximum diameter in common or decimal fractions
of an inch and, optionally, by the millimeter equivalent stated
parenthetically. The diameter of a whole, cut, diagonal cut, or short
cut is determined by measuring the thickest portion of the pod at the
shorter diameter of the bean perpendicular to the longitudinal axis.
(5) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food
shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of
parts 101 and 130 of this chapter.
(b) Quality. (1) When tested by the method prescribed in paragraph
(b)(2) of this section:
(i) In the case of cut beans and diagonal cut beans under paragraphs
(a)(2)(iii) (c) and (d) of this section and mixtures of two or more
optional forms under paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(g) of this section, not more
than 60 units per 340 g (12 oz) drained weight are less than 13 mm (0.50
in) long: Provided, That where the number of units per 340 g (12 oz)
drained weight exceeds 240, not more than 25 percent by count of the
total units are less than 13 mm (0.50 in) long.
(ii) In case there are present pods or pieces of pods 10.7 mm (\27/
64\-inch) or more in diameter, there are not more than 12 strings per
340 gm (12 ounces) of drained weight which will support 227 gm (one-half
pound) for 5 seconds or longer.
(iii) The deseeded pods contain not more than 0.15 percent by weight
of fibrous material.
(iv) There are not more than 10 percent by weight of blemished units
of which amount not more than one-half may be materially damaged by
insect or pathological injury. A unit is considered blemished when the
aggregate blemished area exceeds the area of a circle 3 mm (\1/8\ in) in
diameter. Materially damaged means that the unit is damaged to the
extent that the appearance or eating quality of the unit is seriously
(v) There are not more than 8 unstemmed units per 340 g (12 oz)
(vi) The combined number of leaves, detached stems, and other
extraneous vegetable matter shall not average more than 3 pieces per 340
g (12 oz) drained beans.
(2) Canned beans shall be tested by the following method to
determine whether they meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this
(i) Determine the gross weight of the container. Open and distribute
the contents of the container over the meshes of a U.S. No. 8 circular
sieve with openings of 2.36 mm (0.0937 in), which has been previously
weighed. The diameter of the sieve is 20.3 cm (8 in) if the quantity of
contents of the container is less than 1.36 kg (3 lb) and 30.5 cm (12
in) if such quantity is 1.36 kg (3 lb) or more. The bottom of the sieve
is woven-wire cloth that complies with the specifications of such cloth
set forth in ``Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of
Official Analytical Chemists,'' 15th ed. (1990), vol. 2, p. xii, Table
1, ``Nominal Dimensions of Standard Test Sieves (USA Standard Series),''
under the heading ``Definitions of Terms and Explanatory Notes,'' which
is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1
CFR part 51. Copies may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481
North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be
examined at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For
information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-
6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal--register/code--of--
federal--regulations/ibr--locations.html. Without shifting the material
on the sieve, incline the sieve 17 to 20[deg] to facilitate drainage.
Two minutes after drainage begins, weigh the sieve and the drained
material. Record in grams (ounces) the weight so found, less the weight
of the sieve, as the drained weight. Dry and weigh the empty container
and subtract this weight from the gross weight to obtain the net weight.
Calculate the percent of drained liquid in the net weight.
(ii) Pour the drained material from the sieve into a flat tray and
spread it in a layer of fairly uniform thickness. Count the total number
of units. For the purpose of this count, loose seeds, pieces of seed,
loose stems, and extraneous material are not to be included. Divide the
number of units by the drained weight recorded in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of
this section and multiply by 340 to obtain the number of units per 340 g
(12 oz) drained weight.
(iii) Examine the drained material in the tray, weigh and record
weight of blemished units, count and record the number of unstemmed
units; and, in case the material consists of the optional ingredient
specified in paragraph (a)(2)(iii) (c), (d) or (f) of this section,
count and record the number of units which are less than 13 mm (0.50
in.) long. If the number of units per 340 g (12 oz.) is 240 or less,
divide the number of units which are less than 13 mm (0.50 in.) by the
drained weight recorded in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section and
multiply by 340 to obtain the number of such units per 340 g (12 oz.)
drained weight. If the number of units per 340 g (12 oz.) exceeds 240,
divide the number of units less than 13 mm (0.50 in.) long by the total
number of units and multiply by 100 to determine the percentage by count
of the total units which are less than 13 mm (0.50 in.) long.
(a) Divide the weight of blemished units by the drained weight
recorded in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section and multiply by 100 to
obtain the percentage by weight of blemished units in the container.
(b) Divide the number of unstemmed units by the drained weight
recorded in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section and multiply by 340 to
obtain the number of unstemmed units per 340 g (12 oz.) of drained
(iv) Remove from the tray the extraneous vegetable material, count,
record count, and return to tray.
(v) Remove from the tray one or more representative samples of 99 to
113 g (3\1/2\ to 4 ounces) covering each sample as taken to prevent
(vi) From each representative sample selected in paragraph (b)(2)(v)
of this section, discard any loose seed and extraneous vegetable
material and detach and discard any attached stems. Except with optional
style of ingredient specified in paragraph (a)(2)(iii)(b) of this
section (pods sliced lengthwise), trim off, as far as the end of the
space formerly occupied by the seed, any portion of pods from which the
seed has become separated. Remove and discard any portions of seed from
the trimmings and reserve the trimmings for paragraph (b)(2)(viii) of
this section. Weigh and record the weight of the trimmed pods. Deseed
the trimmed pods and reserve the deseeded pods for paragraph
(b)(2)(viii) of this section. Remove strings from the pods during the
deseeding operation. Reserve these strings for testing as prescribed in
paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section. In the case of pods sliced
lengthwise, remove seed and pieces of seed and reserve the deseeded pods
for use as prescribed in paragraph (b)(2)(viii) of this section.
(vii) If strings have been removed for testing, as prescribed in
paragraph (b)(2)(vi) of this section, test them as follows:
Fasten clamp, weighted to 250 g (8.8 oz.), to one end of the string,
grasp the other end with the fingers (a cloth may be used to aid in
holding the string), and lift gently. Count
the string as tough if it supports the 250 g (8.8 oz.) weight for at
least 5 seconds. If the string breaks before 5 seconds, test such parts
into which it breaks as are 13 mm (\1/2\ in.) or more in length; and if
any such part of the string supports the 250 g (8.8 oz.) weight for at
least 5 seconds, count the string as tough. Divide the number of tough
strings by the weight of the sample recorded in paragraph (b)(2)(v) of
this section and multiply by 340 to obtain the number of tough strings
per 340 g (12 oz.) drained weight.
(viii) Combine the deseeded pods with the trimmings reserved in
paragraph (b)(2)(vi) of this section, and, if strings were tested as
prescribed in paragraph (b)(2)(vii) of this section, add such strings
broken or unbroken. Weigh and record weight of combined material.
Transfer to the metal cup of a malted-milk stirrer and mash with a
pestle. Wash material adhering to the pestle back into cup with 200 cc
of boiling water. Bring mixture nearly to a boil, add 25 cc of 50
percent (by weight) sodium hydroxide solution and bring to a boil. (If
foaming is excessive, 1 cc of capryl alcohol may be added.) Boil for 5
minutes, then stir for 5 minutes with a malted-milk stirrer capable of a
no-load speed of at least 7,200 rpm. Use a rotor with two scalloped
buttons shaped as shown in exhibit 1 as follows:
[GRAPHIC] [TIFF OMITTED] TR01JA93.377
Transfer the material from the cup to a previously weighed 30-mesh monel
metal screen having a diameter of about 9-10 cm (3\1/2\ to 4 in.) and
side walls about 2.5 cm (1 in.) high, and wash fiber on the screen with
a stream of water using a pressure not exceeding a head (vertical
distance between upper level of water and outlet of glass tube) of 152
cm (60 in.), delivered through a glass tube 7.6 cm (3 in.) long and 3 mm
(\1/8\ in.) inside diameter inserted into a rubber tube of 6 mm (\1/4\
in.) inside diameter. Wash the pulpy portion of the material through the
screen and continue washing until the remaining fibrous material,
moistened with phenolphthalein solution, does not show any red color
after standing 5 minutes. Again wash to remove phenolphthalein. Dry the
screen containing the fibrous material for 2 hours at 100 [deg]C, cool,
weigh, and deduct weight of screen. Divide the weight of fibrous
material by the weight of combined deseeded pods, trimmings, and strings
and multiply by 100 to obtain the percentage of fibrous material.
(ix) If the drained weight recorded in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this
section was less than 340 g (12 oz.), open and examine separately for
extraneous material, as directed in paragraph (b)(2)(iv) of this
section, additional containers until a total of not less than 340 g (12
oz.) of drained material is obtained. To determine the number of pieces
of extraneous vegetable material per 340 g (12 oz.) of drained weight,
total the number of pieces of extraneous vegetable material found in all
containers opened, divide this sum by the sum of the drained weights in
these containers and multiply by 340.
(3) Determine compliance as specified in Sec. 155.3(b) except that
a lot shall be deemed to be in compliance for extraneous plant material
based on an average of all containers examined.
(4) If the quality of the canned green beans or canned wax beans
falls below the standard of quality prescribed by paragraph (b)(1) of
this section, the label shall bear the general statement of substandard
quality specified in Sec. 130.14(a) of this chapter, in the manner and
form therein specified; but in lieu of the words prescribed for the
second line inside the rectangle the following words may be used, when
the quality of canned green beans or canned wax beans falls below the
standard in one only of the following respects:
(i) ``Excessive number very short pieces'', if the canned green
canned wax beans fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(i) of
(ii) ``Excessive number blemished units'', if they fail to meet the
requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(iv) of this section.
(iii) ``Excessive number unstemmed units'', if they fail to meet the
requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(v) of this section.
(iv) ``Excessive foreign material'', if they fail to meet the
requirements of paragraph (b)(1)(vi) of this section.
[42 FR 14449, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 42 FR 30359, 30360, June 14,
1977; 45 FR 43398, June 27, 1980; 47 FR 11831, Mar. 19, 1982; 49 FR
10101, Mar. 19, 1984; 57 FR 34245, Aug. 4, 1992; 58 FR 2882, Jan. 6,
1993; 63 FR 14035, Mar. 24, 1998]
Additives that reference this regulation: