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145.145 Canned grapefruit.

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[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 21CFR145.145]

[Page 416-420]
 
                        TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
 
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN 
                          SERVICES (CONTINUED)
 
PART 145_CANNED FRUITS--Table of Contents
 
     Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Fruits
 
Sec.  145.145  Canned grapefruit.

    (a) Identity--(1) Product identification. Canned grapefruit is the 
food prepared from one of the optional grapefruit ingredients specified 
in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and one of the optional packing 
media specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this section. Such food may also 
contain one or more of the following safe and suitable optional 
ingredients:
    (i) Spices.
    (ii) Natural and artificial flavoring.
    (iii) Lemon juice.
    (iv) Citric acid.
    (v) Calcium chloride or calcium lactate or a mixture of the two 
calcium salts in a quantity reasonably necessary to firm the grapefruit 
sections, but in no case in a quantity such that the calcium contained 
in such calcium salt or mixture is more than 0.035 percent by weight of 
the finished food.


Such food is sealed in a container and, before or after sealing, is so 
processed by heat as to prevent spoilage.
    (2) Optional grapefruit ingredient. The optional grapefruit 
ingredients referred to in paragraph (a)(1) of this section are prepared 
from sound, mature grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfadyen) of the color 
types white--produced from white-fleshed grapefruit, and pink--produced 
from pink or red-fleshed grapefruit and are in the following forms of 
units: Whole sections or broken sections. Each such form of units or a 
mixture of such forms of units prepared from a single varietal group 
(color type) is an optional grapefruit ingredient. The core, seeds, and 
major portions of membrane of such ingredient are removed. For the 
purpose of this section, a grapefruit section is considered whole when 
the unit is intact or an intact portion of such unit is not less than 75 
percent of its apparent

[[Page 417]]

original size and is not excessively trimmed.
    (i) For the purpose of paragraph (a)(4) of this section, the name of 
the optional grapefruit ingredient is:
    (a) ``Section'' or ``segments'', if 50 percent or more of the 
drained weight of the food consists of whole sections.
    (b) ``Broken sections'' or ``broken segments'', if less than 50 
percent of the drained weight of the food consists of whole sections.
    (ii) The drained weight is determined by the method prescribed in 
the standard of fill of container for canned grapefruit set forth in 
paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
    (3) Packing media. (i) The optional packing media referred to in 
paragraph (a)(1) of this section are:
    (a) Water.
    (b) Grapefruit juice and water.
    (c) Grapefruit juice.
    (d) Slightly sweetened sirup or slightly sweetened water.
    (e) Light sirup.
    (f) Heavy sirup.
    (g) Slightly sweetened grapefruit juice and water.
    (h) Lightly sweetened grapefruit juice and water.
    (i) Heavily sweetened grapefruit juice and water.
    (j) Slightly sweetened grapefruit juice.
    (k) Lightly sweetened grapefruit juice.
    (l) Heavily sweetened grapefruit juice.


As used in paragraph (a)(3)(i) of this section, the optional packing 
medium ``water'' means, in addition to water, any mixture of water and 
grapefruit juice in which there is less than 50 percent grapefruit 
juice; the optional packing medium ``grapefruit juice and water'' means 
the liquid packing medium in which juice of mature grapefruit and water 
are combined as a liquid packing medium with not less than 50 percent 
grapefruit juice and the term ``grapefruit juice'' means single strength 
expressed juice of sound, mature fruit. It may be fresh, canned, or made 
from concentrate. However, if it is made from concentrate, the juice 
shall be reconstituted with water to not less than the soluble solids 
the grapefruit juice had before concentration.
    (ii) Each of the packing media in paragraph (a)(3)(i) (d) to (l) of 
this section is prepared with a liquid ingredient and one or more safe 
and suitable nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Water is the liquid 
ingredient from which packing media in paragraph (a)(3)(i) (d) to (f) of 
this section are prepared. Grapefruit juice and water are the liquid 
ingredients from which the packing media in paragraph (a)(3)(i) (g) to 
(i) of this section are prepared. Grapefruit juice is the liquid 
ingredient from which the packing media in paragraph (a)(3)(i) (j) to 
(l) of this section are prepared. If one or more liquid nutritive 
carbohydrate sweeteners and grapefruit juice are combined as a liquid 
packing medium with not less than 50 percent grapefruit juice, the 
packing medium is as set forth in paragraph (a)(3)(i) (g) to (i) of this 
section.
    (iii) The respective densities of packing media in paragraph 
(a)(3)(i) (d) to (i) of this section as measured on the refractometer, 
expressed as percent by weight sucrose (degrees Brix) with correction 
for temperature to the equivalent at 20 [deg]C (68 [deg]F), 15 days or 
more after the grapefruit are canned or the blended homogenized slurry 
of the comminuted entire contents of the container if canned for less 
than 15 days, according to the ``Official Methods of Analysis of the 
Association of Official Analytical Chemists'' (AOAC), 13th Ed. (1980), 
section 31.011 under ``Solids By Means of Refractometer--Official Final 
Action,'' and Reference Tables, section 52.012 (Refractive indices (n) 
of sucrose solutions at 20[deg]) and section 52.015 (Refractive indices 
of invert sugar solutions), which is incorporated by reference (copies 
may be obtained from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481 North Frederick Ave., 
suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or may be examined at the National 
Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the 
availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: 
http://www.archives.gov/federal--register/code--of--federal--
regulations/ibr--locations.html), but without correction for invert 
sugar or other substances, are as follows:

[[Page 418]]

    (a) Packing media in paragraph (a)(3)(i) (d), (g), and (j) of this 
section: Twelve percent or more but less than 16 percent.
    (b) Packing media in paragraph (a)(3)(i) (e), (h), and (k) of this 
section: Sixteen percent or more but less than 18 percent.
    (c) Packing media in paragraph (a)(3)(i) (f), (i), and (l) of this 
section: Eighteen percent or more. A lot shall be deemed to be in 
compliance for packing medium density based on the average value for all 
the samples analyzed according to paragraph (b)(2) of this section but 
no container may have a value lower than that of the next lower category 
or 2 percent by weight sucrose (degrees Brix) lower if no lower category 
exists.
    (4) Labeling requirements. (i) The name of the food is 
``grapefruit'' or ``pink grapefruit'', as appropriate for the color type 
of the grapefruit used. The name of the food shall also include a 
declaration of any flavoring that characterizes the product as specified 
in Sec.  101.22 of this chapter and a declaration of any spice or 
seasoning that characterizes the product; for example, ``with added 
spice''. Whenever the word ``sirup'' is used, it may be alternatively 
spelled ``syrup''. When two or more of the optional ingredients 
specified in paragraphs (a)(1) (i), (ii), and (iii) of this section are 
used, such words may be combined; for example, ``with added cloves and 
cinnamon oil''.
    (ii) The form and style of the grapefruit ingredient as provided for 
in paragraph (a)(2) of this section and the name of the packing medium 
as used in paragraph (a)(3) of this section preceded by ``In'' or 
``Packed in'' shall be included as part of the name. When the packing 
medium is prepared from concentrated grapefruit juice, the words ``from 
concentrate'' shall follow the words ``grapefruit juice'' in the name of 
the packing medium.
    (iii) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food 
shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of 
parts 101 and 130 of this chapter.
    (b) Quality. (1) The standard of quality for canned grapefruit is as 
follows:
    (i) The food is free from extraneous material such as leaves, 
portions of leaves, and pieces of peel.
    (ii) The finished food contains per 500 grams (17.6 ounces) not more 
than:
    (a) An aggregate area of 20 square centimeters (3.1 square inches) 
of tough membrane or albedo on the units.
    (b) Four developed seeds. A seed is considered a developed seed when 
it measures more than 9.0 millimeters (0.35 inches) in any dimension.
    (iii) Not more than 15 percent by weight of the drained grapefruit 
may be blemished units. A blemished unit is a grapefruit section or any 
portion thereof which is damaged by lye peeling, by discoloration, or by 
other visible injury. The drained weight is determined by the method 
prescribed in the standard of fill of container for canned grapefruit 
set forth in paragraph (c)(2) of this section.
    (2) Sampling and acceptance procedure. A lot is to be considered 
acceptable when the number of ``defectives'' does not exceed the 
acceptance number in the sampling plans given in paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of 
this section.
    (i) Definitions of terms to be used in the sampling plans in 
paragraph (b)(2)(ii) of this section are as follows:
    (a) Lot. A collection of primary containers or units of the same 
size, type and style manufactured or packed under similar conditions and 
handled as a single unit of trade.
    (b) Lot size. The number of primary containers or units in the lot.
    (c) Sample size (n). The total number of sample units drawn for 
examination from a lot.
    (d) Sample unit. A container, the entire contents of a container, a 
portion of the contents of a container, or a composite mixture of 
product from small containers that is sufficient for the examination or 
testing as a single unit.
    (e) Defective. Any sample unit shall be regarded as defective when 
any of the defects or conditions specified in the quality standard 
(paragraph (b)(1) of this section) and paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this 
section for minimum fill of container are present in excess of the 
stated tolerances.

[[Page 419]]

    (f) Accepted number (c). The maximum number of defective sample 
units permitted in the sample in order to consider the lot as meeting 
the specified requirements.
    (g) Acceptable quality level (AQL). The maximum percent of defective 
sample units permitted in a lot that will be accepted approximately 95 
percent of the time.
    (ii) Sampling plans and acceptance procedure:

------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                      Size of container
           Lot size (primary containers)           ---------------------
                                                      n \1\      c \2\
------------------------------------------------------------------------
             net weight equal to or less than 1 kg (2.2 lb)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
4,800 or less.....................................         13          2
4,801-24,000......................................         21          3
24,001-48,000.....................................         29          4
48,001-84,000.....................................         48          6
84,001-144,000....................................         84          9
144,001-240,000...................................        126         13
Over 240,000......................................        200         19
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 net weight greater than 1 kg (2.2 lb) but not more than 4.5 kg (10 lb)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
2,400 or less.....................................         13          2
2,401-15,000......................................         21          3
15,001-24,000.....................................         29          4
24,001-42,000.....................................         48          6
42,001-72,000.....................................         84          9
72,001-120,000....................................        126         13
Over 120,000......................................        200         19
------------------------------------------------------------------------
                 net weight greater than 4.5 kg (10 lb)
------------------------------------------------------------------------
600 or less.......................................         13          2
601-2,000.........................................         21          3
2,001-7,200.......................................         29          4
7,201-15,000......................................         48          6
15,001-24,000.....................................         84          9
24,001-42,000.....................................        126         13
Over 42,000.......................................        200         19
------------------------------------------------------------------------
\1\ n=number of primary containers in sample
\2\ c=acceptance number

    (3) If the quality of canned grapefruit falls below the standard 
prescribed in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the label shall bear the 
general statement of substandard quality specified in Sec.  130.14(a) of 
this chapter, in the manner and form therein specified; however, if the 
quality of the canned grapefruit falls below standard with respect to 
only one of the factors of quality specified by paragraph (b)(1) (i), 
(ii), or (iii) of this section, there may be substituted for the second 
line of such general statement of substandard quality, ``Good Food--Not 
High Grade'', a new line as specified after the corresponding 
designation of paragraph (b)(1) of this section which the canned 
grapefruit fail to meet:
    (i) ``Contains extraneous material''.
    (ii)(a) ``Excessive tough membrane''.
    (b) ``Excessive seeds''.
    (iii) ``Excessive blemished units''.
    (c) Fill of container.(1) The standard of fill of container for 
canned grapefruit is:
    (i) The fill of grapefruit and packing medium, as determined by the 
general method for fill of container prescribed in Sec.  130.12(b) of 
this chapter, is not less than 90 percent of the total capacity of the 
container.
    (ii) The drained weight of grapefruit ingredient is not less than 50 
percent of the water capacity of the container, as determined by the 
method prescribed in paragraph (c)(2) of this section and the general 
method for water capacity of containers prescribed in Sec.  130.12(a) of 
this chapter.
    (2) Drained weight is determined by the following method: Tilt the 
opened container so as to distribute the contents evenly over the meshes 
of a circular sieve which has previously been weighed. The diameter of 
the sieve is 20.3 centimeters (8 inches) if the quantity of contents of 
the container is less than 1.4 kilograms (3 pounds) and 30.5 centimeters 
(12 inches) if such quantity is 1.4 kilograms (3 pounds) or more. The 
bottom of the sieve is woven-wire cloth that complies with the 
specifications for the No. 8 sieve set forth in the ``Definitions of 
Terms and Explanatory Notes'' of the AOAC, 13th Ed. (1980), Table 1, 
which is incorporated by reference. The availability of this 
incorporation by reference is given in paragraph (a)(3)(iii) of this 
section. Without shifting the material on the sieve, incline the sieve 
at an angle of 17[deg] to 20[deg] to facilitate drainage. Two minutes 
after the drainage begins, weigh the sieve and drained grapefruit. The 
weight so found, less the weight of the sieve, shall be considered to be 
the weight of the drained grapefruit.
    (3)(i) A container that falls below the requirement for minimum fill 
prescribed in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section shall be considered a 
``defective''. The food will be deemed to fall below the standard of 
fill when the number of defectives exceeds the acceptance number (c) in 
the sampling

[[Page 420]]

plans prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) of this section.
    (ii) Canned grapefruit will be deemed to fall below the standard of 
fill when the average drained weight of all containers analyzed when 
sampled according to the sampling plans prescribed in paragraph (b)(2) 
of this section is less than that prescribed in paragraph (c)(1)(ii) of 
this section.
    (4) If canned grapefruit falls below the standard of fill of 
container prescribed in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the label 
shall bear the statement of substandard fill specified in Sec.  
130.14(b) of this chapter, in the manner and form therein specified.

[42 FR 14414, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 47 FR 11830, Mar. 19, 1982; 
49 FR 10100, Mar. 19, 1984; 54 FR 24895, June 12, 1989; 58 FR 2880, Jan. 
6, 1993; 63 FR 14035, Mar. 24, 1998]





Additives that reference this regulation:


Source: U.S. Code of Federal Regulations - CFR Title 21, Part 145, Section 145


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