[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 133_CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related
Sec. 133.195 Swiss and emmentaler cheese.
(a) Description. (1) Swiss cheese, emmentaler cheese, is the food
prepared by the procedure set forth in paragraph (a)(3) of this section,
or by any other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the
same physical and chemical properties. It has holes or eyes developed
throughout the cheese. The minimum milkfat content is 43 percent by
weight of the solids and the maximum moisture content is 41 percent by
weight, as determined by the methods described in Sec. 133.5. The dairy
ingredients used may be pasteurized. Swiss cheese is at least 60 days
(2) If pasteurized dairy ingredients are used, the phenol equivalent
value of 0.25 gram of swiss cheese is not more than 3 micrograms as
determined by the method described in Sec. 133.5.
(3) One or more of the dairy ingredients specified in paragraph
(b)(1) of this section may be bleached, warmed, or treated with hydrogen
peroxide/catalase, and is subjected to the action of lactic acid-
producing and propionic acid-producing bacterial cultures. One or more
of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is
added to set the dairy ingredients to a semisolid mass. The mass is cut
into particles similar in size to wheat kernels. For about 30 minutes
the particles are alternately stirred and allowed to settle. The
temperature is raised to about 126 [deg]F. Stirring is continued until
the curd becomes firm. The acidity of the whey at this point, calculated
as lactic acid, does not exceed 0.13 percent. The curd is transferred to
hoops or forms and pressed until the desired shape and firmness are
obtained. The cheese is then salted by immersing it in a saturated salt
solution for about 3 days. It is then held at a temperature of about
50[deg] to 60 [deg]F. for a period of 5 to 10 days, after which it is
held at a temperature of about 75 [deg]F. until it is approximately 30
days old, or until the so-called eyes form. Salt, or a solution of salt
in water, is
added to the surface of the cheese at some time during the curing
process. The cheese is then stored at a lower temperature for further
curing. One or more of the optional ingredients specified in paragraph
(b)(3) of this section may be added during the procedure.
(b) Optional ingredients. The following safe and suitable
ingredients may be used:
(1) Dairy ingredients. Milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in
Sec. 133.3, used alone or in combination.
(2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of
animal, plant, or microbial origin.
(3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Coloring.
(ii) Calcium chloride in an amount not more than 0.02 percent
(calculated as anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy
ingredients, used as a coagulation aid.
(iii) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin, used in curing
or flavor development.
(iv) Antimycotic agents, the cumulative levels of which shall not
exceed good manufacturing practice, may be added to the surface of the
(v) Benzoyl peroxide or a mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium
alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate used to bleach the dairy
ingredients. The weight of the benzoyl peroxide is not more than 0.002
percent of the weight of the milk being bleached, and the weight of the
potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate, singly or
combined, is not more than six times the weight of the benzoyl peroxide
used. If milk is bleached in this manner, vitamin A is added to the curd
in such quantity as to compensate for the vitamin A or its precursors
destroyed in the bleaching process, and artificial coloring is not used.
(vi) Hydrogen peroxide, followed by a sufficient quantity of
catalase preparation to eliminate the hydrogen peroxide. The weight of
the hydrogen peroxide shall not exceed 0.05 percent of the weight of the
milk and the weight of the catalase shall not exceed 20 parts per
million of the weight of the milk treated.
(c) Nomenclature. The name of the food is ``swiss cheese'', or
alternatively, ``emmentaler cheese''.
(d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food
shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of
parts 101 and 130 of this chapter, except that:
(1) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared as
(2) The dairy ingredients may be declared, in descending order of
predominance, by the use of the terms ``milkfat and nonfat milk'' or
``nonfat milk and milkfat'', as appropriate.
[48 FR 2746, Jan. 21, 1983; 48 FR 11426, Mar. 18, 1983, as amended at 55
FR 6795, Feb. 27, 1990; 58 FR 2895, Jan. 6, 1993]
Additives that reference this regulation: