[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 133_CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related
Sec. 133.181 Provolone cheese.
(a) Description. (1) Provolone, a pasta filata or stretched curd-
type cheese, is the food prepared by the procedure set forth in
paragraph (a)(3) of this section, or by any other method which produces
a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical properties. It
has a stringy texture. The minimum milkfat content is 45 percent by
weight of the solids, as determined by the methods described in Sec.
133.5 and the maximum moisture content is 45 percent by weight. If the
dairy ingredients used are not pasteurized, the cheese is cured at a
temperature of not less than 35 [deg]F for at least 60 days.
(2) If pasteurized dairy ingredients are used, the phenol equivalent
value of 0.25 gram of provolone cheese is not
more than 3 micrograms as determined by the method described in Sec.
(3) One or more of the dairy ingredients specified in paragraph
(b)(1) of this section may be bleached, warmed, and is subjected to the
action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture. One or more of the
clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of this section is added
to set the dairy ingredients to a semisolid mass. The mass is cut,
stirred, and heated so as to promote and regulate the separation of whey
from the curd. The whey is drained off, and the curd is matted and cut,
immersed in hot water, and kneaded and stretched until it is smooth and
free from lumps. Antimycotics may be added to the curd during the
kneading and stretching process. Then it is cut and molded. During the
molding the curd is kept sufficiently warm to cause proper sealing of
the surface. The molded curd is then firmed by immersion in cold water,
salted in brine, and dried. It is given some additional curing.
Provolone cheese may be smoked, and one or more of the other optional
ingredients specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section may be added
during the procedure.
(b) Optional ingredients. The following safe and suitable
ingredients may be used:
(1) Dairy ingredients. Milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in
Sec. 133.3, used alone or in combination.
(2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of
animal, plant, or microbial origin.
(3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Blue or green color in an amount
to neutralize the natural yellow color of the curd.
(ii) Calcium chloride in an amount not more than 0.02 percent
(calculated as anhydrous calcium chloride) by weight of the dairy
ingredients, used as a coagulation aid.
(iii) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin, used in curing
or flavor development.
(iv) Safe and suitable antimycotic agent(s), the cumulative levels
of which shall not exceed current good manufacturing practice, may be
added to the cheese during the kneading and stretching process and/or
applied to the surface of the cheese.
(v) Benzoyl peroxide or a mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium
alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate used to bleach the dairy
ingredients. The weight of the benzoyl peroxide is not more than 0.002
percent of the weight of the milk being bleached, and the weight of the
potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate, singly or
combined, is not more than six times the weight of the benzoyl peroxide
used. If milk is bleached in this manner, vitamin A is added to the curd
in such quantity as to compensate for the vitamin A or its precursors
destroyed in the bleaching process, and artificial coloring is not used.
(c) Nomenclature. (1) The name of the food is ``provolone cheese''.
The name of the food may include the common name of the shape of the
cheese, such as ``salami provolone''.
(2) One of the following terms, in letters not less than one-half
the height of the letters used in the name of the food, shall accompany
the name of the food wherever it appears on the principal display panel
(i) ``Smoked'' if the food has been smoked.
(ii) ``Not smoked'' if the food has not been smoked.
(d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food
shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of
parts 101 and 130 of this chapter, except that:
(1) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared as
(2) The dairy ingredients may be declared, in descending order of
predominance, by the use of the terms ``milkfat and nonfat milk'' or
``nonfat milk and milkfat'', as appropriate.
[48 FR 2745, Jan. 21, 1983, as amended at 48 FR 49014, Oct. 24, 1983; 58
FR 2895, Jan. 6, 1993]
Additives that reference this regulation: