[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 133_CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related
Sec. 133.165 Parmesan and reggiano cheese.
(a) Parmesan cheese, reggiano cheese, is the food prepared from milk
and other ingredients specified in this section, by the procedure set
forth in paragraph (b) of this section, or by another procedure which
produces a finished cheese having the same physical and chemical
properties as the cheese produced when the procedure set forth in
paragraph (b) of this section is used. It is characterized by a granular
texture and a hard and brittle rind. It grates readily. It contains not
more than 32 percent of moisture, and its solids contain not less than
32 percent of milkfat, as determined by the methods prescribed in Sec.
133.5 (a), (b), and (d). It is cured for not less than 10 months.
(b) Milk, which may be pasteurized or clarified or both, and which
may be warmed, is subjected to the action of
harmless lactic-acid-producing bacteria, present in such milk or added
thereto. Sufficient rennet, or other safe and suitable milk-clotting
enzyme that produces equivalent curd formation, or both, with or without
purified calcium chloride in a quantity not more than 0.02 percent
(calculated as anhydrous calcium chloride) of the weight of the milk, is
added to set the milk to a semisolid mass. Harmless artificial coloring
may be added. The mass is cut into pieces no larger than wheat kernels,
heated, and stirred until the temperature reaches between 115 [deg]F and
125 [deg]F. The curd is allowed to settle and is then removed from the
kettle or vat, drained for a short time, placed in hoops, and pressed.
The pressed curd is removed and salted in brine, or dry-salted. The
cheese is cured in a cool, ventilated room. The rind of the cheese may
be coated or colored. A harmless preparation of enzymes of animal or
plant origin capable of aiding in the curing or development of flavor of
parmesan cheese may be added during the procedure, in such quantity that
the weight of the solids of such preparation is not more than 0.1
percent of the weight of the milk used.
(c)(1) For the purposes of this section, the word ``milk'' means
cow's milk, which may be adjusted by separating part of the fat
therefrom or by adding thereto one or more of the following: Cream, skim
milk, concentrated skim milk, nonfat dry milk, water in a quantity
sufficient to reconstitute any concentrated skim milk or nonfat dry milk
(2) Such milk may be bleached by the use of benzoyl peroxide or a
mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and
magnesium carbonate; but the weight of the benzoyl peroxide is not more
than 0.002 percent of the weight of the milk bleached, and the weight of
the potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate, singly or
combined, is not more than six times the weight of the benzoyl peroxide
used. If milk is bleached in this manner, sufficient vitamin A is added
to the curd to compensate for the vitamin A or its precursors destroyed
in the bleaching process, and artificial coloring is not used.
(d) Safe and suitable antimycotic agent(s), the cumulative levels of
which shall not exceed current good manufacturing practice may be added
to the surface of the cheese.
(e) Label declaration: Each of the ingredients used in the food
shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of
parts 101 and 130 of this chapter, except that enzymes of animal, plant,
or microbial origin may be declared as ``enzymes''.
[42 FR 14366, Mar. 15, 1977, as amended at 48 FR 49014, Oct. 24, 1983;
49 FR 10095, Mar. 19, 1984; 58 FR 2894, Jan. 6, 1993]
Additives that reference this regulation: