[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 133_CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related
Sec. 133.149 Gruyere cheese.
(a) Description. (1) Gruyere cheese is the food prepared by the
procedure set forth in paragraph (a)(3) of this section or by any other
procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same physical and
chemical properties. It contains small holes or eyes. It has a mild
flavor, due in part to the growth of surface-curing agents. The minimum
milkfat content is 45 percent by weight of the solids and the maximum
moisture content is 39 percent by weight, as determined by the methods
described in Sec. 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be pasteurized.
The cheese is at least 90 days old.
(2) If pasteurized dairy ingredients are used, the phenol equivalent
value of 0.25 gram of gruyere cheese is not more than 3 micrograms as
determined by the method described in Sec. 133.5.
(3) One or more of the dairy ingredients specified in paragraph
(b)(1) of this section may be warmed and is subjected to the action of
lactic acid-producing and propionic acid-producing bacterial cultures.
One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of
this section is added to set the dairy ingredients to a semisolid
mass. The mass is cut into particles similar in size to wheat kernels.
For about 30 minutes the particles are alternately stirred and allowed
to settle. The temperature is raised to about 126 [deg]F. Stirring is
continued until the curd becomes firm. The curd is transferred to hoops
or forms, and pressed until the desired shape and firmness are obtained.
The cheese is surface-salted while held at a temperature of 48[deg] to
54 [deg]F for a few days. It is soaked for 1 day in a saturated salt
solution. It is then held for 3 weeks in a salting cellar and wiped
every 2 days with brine cloth to insure growth of biological curing
agents on the rind. It is then removed to a heating room and held at
progressively higher temperatures, finally reaching 65 [deg]F with a
relative humidity of 85 to 90 percent, for several weeks, during which
time small holes, or so-called eyes, form. The cheese is then stored at
a lower temperature for further curing. One or more of the other
optional ingredients specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section may
be added during the procedure.
(b) Optional ingredients. The following safe and suitable
ingredients may be used:
(1) Dairy ingredients. Milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in
Sec. 133.3, used alone or in combination.
(2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of
animal, plant, or microbial origin.
(3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Calcium chloride in an amount
not more than 0.02 percent (calculated as anhydrous calcium chloride) of
the weight of the dairy ingredients, used as a coagulation aid.
(ii) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin, used in curing
or flavor development.
(iii) Antimycotic agents, applied to the surface of slices or cuts
in consumer-sized packages.
(c) Nomenclature. The name of the food is ``gruyere cheese''.
(d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food
shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of
parts 101 and 130 of this chapter, except that:
(1) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared as
(2) The dairy ingredients may be declared, in descending order of
predominance, by the use of the terms ``milkfat and nonfat milk'' or
``nonfat milk and milkfat'', as appropriate.
[48 FR 2744, Jan. 21, 1983; 48 FR 11426, Mar. 18, 1983, as amended at 58
FR 2893, Jan. 6, 1993]
Additives that reference this regulation: