[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 133_CHEESES AND RELATED CHEESE PRODUCTS--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Cheese and Related
Sec. 133.106 Blue cheese.
(a) Description. (1) Blue cheese is the food prepared by the
procedure set forth in paragraph (a)(2), of this section, or by any
other procedure which produces a finished cheese having the same
physical and chemical properties. It is characterized by the presence of
bluish-green mold, Penicillium roque fortii, throughout the cheese. The
minimum milkfat content is 50 percent by weight of the solids and the
maximum moisture content is 46 percent by weight, as determined by the
methods described in Sec. 133.5. The dairy ingredients used may be
pasteurized. Blue cheese is at least 60 days old.
(2) One or more of the dairy ingredients specified in paragraph
(b)(1) of this section may be homogenized, bleached, warmed, and is
subjected to the action of a lactic acid-producing bacterial culture.
One or more of the clotting enzymes specified in paragraph (b)(2) of
this section is added to set the dairy ingredients to a semisolid mass.
The mass is cut into smaller portions and allowed to stand for a time.
The mixed curd and whey is placed in forms permitting further drainage.
While the curd is being placed in forms, spores of the mold Penicillium
roque fortii are added. The forms are turned several times during
drainage. When sufficiently drained, the shaped curd is removed from the
forms and salted with dry salt or brine. Perforations are then made in
the shaped curd, and it is held at a temperature of approximately 50
[deg]F. at 90 to 95 percent relative humidity, until the characteristic
mold growth has developed. During storage the surface of the cheese may
be scraped to remove surface growth of undesirable microorganisms.
Antimycotics may be applied to the surface of the whole cheese. One or
more of the other optional ingredients specified in paragraph (b)(3) of
this section may be added during the procedure.
(b) Optional ingredients. The following safe and suitable
ingredients may be used:
(1) Dairy ingredients. Milk, nonfat milk, or cream, as defined in
Sec. 133.3, used alone or in combination.
(2) Clotting enzymes. Rennet and/or other clotting enzymes of
animal, plant, or microbial origin.
(3) Other optional ingredients. (i) Blue or green color in an amount
to neutralize the natural yellow color of the curd.
(ii) Calcium chloride in an amount not more than 0.02 percent
(calculated as anhydrous calcium chloride) of the weight of the dairy
ingredients, used as a coagulation aid.
(iii) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin, used in curing
or flavor development.
(iv) Antimycotic agents, applied to the surface of slices or cuts in
consumer-sized packages or to the surface of the bulk cheese during
(v) Benzoyl peroxide or a mixture of benzoyl peroxide with potassium
alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate used to bleach the dairy
ingredients. The weight of the benzoyl peroxide is not more than 0.002
percent of the weight of the milk being bleached, and the weight of the
potassium alum, calcium sulfate, and magnesium carbonate, singly or
combined, is not more
than six times the weight of the benzoyl peroxide used. If milk is
bleached in this manner, vitamin A is added to the curd in such quantity
as to compensate for the vitamin A or its precursors destroyed in the
bleaching process, and artificial coloring is not used.
(vi) Vegetable fats or oils, which may be hydrogenated, used as a
coating for the rind.
(c) Nomenclature. The name of the food is ``blue cheese.''
(d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food
shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of
parts 101 and 130 of this chapter, except that:
(1) Enzymes of animal, plant, or microbial origin may be declared as
(2) The dairy ingredients may be declared, in descending order of
predominance, by the use of the terms ``milkfat and nonfat milk'' or
``nonfat milk and milkfat'', as appropriate.
[48 FR 2742, Jan. 21, 1983, as amended at 54 FR 32052, Aug. 4, 1989; 58
FR 2892, Jan. 6, 1993]
Additives that reference this regulation: