[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN
PART 131_MILK AND CREAM--Table of Contents
Subpart B_Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream
Sec. 131.200 Yogurt.
(a) Description. Yogurt is the food produced by culturing one or
more of the optional dairy ingredients specified in paragraph (c) of
this section with a characterizing bacterial culture that contains the
lactic acid-producing bacteria, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and
Streptococcus thermophilus. One or more of the other optional
ingredients specified in paragraphs (b) and (d) of this section may also
be added. When one or more of the ingredients specified in paragraph
(d)(1) of this section are used, they shall be included in the culturing
process. All ingredients used are safe and suitable. Yogurt, before the
addition of bulky flavors, contains not less than 3.25 percent milkfat
and not less than 8.25 percent milk solids not fat, and has a titratable
acidity of not less than 0.9 percent, expressed as lactic acid. The food
may be homogenized and shall be pasteurized or ultra-pasteurized prior
to the addition of the bacterial culture. Flavoring ingredients may be
added after pasteurization or ultra-pasteurization. To extend the shelf
life of the food, yogurt may be heat treated after culturing is
completed, to destroy viable microorganisms.
(b) Vitamin addition (optional). (1) If added, vitamin A shall be
present in such quantity that each 946 milliliters (quart) of the food
contains not less than 2,000 International Units thereof, within limits
of current good manufacturing practice.
(2) If added, vitamin D shall be present in such quantity that each
946 milliliters (quart) of the food contains 400 International Units
thereof, within limits of current good manufacturing practice.
(c) Optional dairy ingredients. Cream, milk, partially skimmed milk,
or skim milk, used alone or in combination.
(d) Other optional ingredients. (1) Concentrated skim milk, nonfat
dry milk, buttermilk, whey, lactose, lact al bum ins, lacto globulins,
or whey modified by partial or complete removal of lactose and/or
minerals, to increase the nonfat solids content of the food: Provided,
That the ratio of protein to total nonfat solids of the food, and the
protein efficiency ratio of all protein present shall not be decreased
as a result of adding such ingredients.
(2) Nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. Sugar (sucrose), beet or
cane; invert sugar (in paste or sirup form); brown sugar; refiner's
sirup; molasses (other than blackstrap); high fructose corn sirup;
fructose; fructose sirup; maltose; maltose sirup, dried maltose sirup;
malt extract, dried malt extract; malt sirup, dried malt sirup; honey;
maple sugar; or any of the sweeteners listed in part 168 of this
chapter, except table sirup.
(3) Flavoring ingredients.
(4) Color additives.
(e) Methods of analysis. The following referenced methods of
analysis are from ``Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of
Official Analytical Chemists,'' 13th Ed. (1980), which is incorporated
by reference. Copies are available from the AOAC INTERNATIONAL, 481
North Frederick Ave., suite 500, Gaithersburg, MD 20877, or available
for inspection at the National Archives and Records Administration
(NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA,
call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal--register/
(1) Milkfat content--As determined by the method prescribed in
section 16.059 ``Roese-Gottlieb Method (Reference Method) (11)--Official
Final Action,'' under the heading ``Fat.''
(2) Milk solids not fat content--Calculated by subtracting the
milkfat content from the total solids content as determined by the
method prescribed in section 16.032, ``Method I--Official Final
Action,'' under the heading ``Total Solids.''
(3) Titratable acidity--As determined by the method prescribed in
section 16.023, ``Acidity (2)--Official Final Action,'' or by an
equivalent potentiometric method.
(f) Nomenclature. The name of the food is ``yogurt''. The name of
the food shall be accompanied by a declaration indicating the presence
of any characterizing flavoring as specified in Sec. 101.22 of this
(1) The following terms shall accompany the name of the food
wherever it appears on the principal display panel or panels of the
label in letters not less than one-half of the height of the letters
used in such name:
(i) The word ``sweetened'' if nutritive carbohydrate sweetener is
added without the addition of characterizing flavor.
(ii) The parenthetical phrase ``(heat-treated after culturing)''
shall follow the name of the food if the dairy ingredients have been
heat-treated after culturing.
(iii) The phrase ``vitamin A'' or ``vitamin A added'', or ``vitamin
D'' or ``vitamin D added'', or ``vitamins A and D added'', as
appropriate. The word ``vitamin'' may be abbreviated ``vit''.
(2) The term ``homogenized'' may appear on the label if the dairy
ingredients used are homogenized.
(g) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food
shall be declared on the label as required by the applicable sections of
parts 101 and 130 of this chapter.
[46 FR 9939, Jan. 30, 1981, as amended at 47 FR 11825, Mar. 19, 1982; 47
FR 41524, Sept. 21, 1982; 48 FR 24869, June 3, 1983; 54 FR 24893, June
12, 1989; 58 FR 2891, Jan. 6, 1993]
Additives that reference this regulation: