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101.14 Health claims: general requirements.

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[Code of Federal Regulations]
[Title 21, Volume 2]
[Revised as of April 1, 2006]
From the U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access
[CITE: 21CFR101.14]

[Page 62-65]
 
                        TITLE 21--FOOD AND DRUGS
 
CHAPTER I--FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN 
                          SERVICES (CONTINUED)
 
PART 101_FOOD LABELING--Table of Contents
 
                      Subpart A_General Provisions
 
Sec.  101.14  Health claims: general requirements.

    (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following 
definitions apply:
    (1) Health claim means any claim made on the label or in labeling of 
a food, including a dietary supplement, that expressly or by 
implication, including ``third party'' references, written statements 
(e.g., a brand name including a term such as ``heart''), symbols (e.g., 
a heart symbol), or vignettes, characterizes the relationship of any 
substance to a disease or health-related condition. Implied health 
claims include those statements, symbols, vignettes, or other forms of 
communication that suggest, within the context in which they are 
presented, that a relationship exists between the presence or level of a 
substance in the food and a disease or health-related condition.
    (2) Substance means a specific food or component of food, regardless 
of whether the food is in conventional food form or a dietary supplement 
that includes vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other similar nutritional 
substances.
    (3) Nutritive value means a value in sustaining human existence by 
such processes as promoting growth, replacing loss of essential 
nutrients, or providing energy.
    (4) Disqualifying nutrient levels means the levels of total fat, 
saturated fat, cholesterol, or sodium in a food above which the food 
will be disqualified from making a health claim. These levels are 13.0 
grams (g) of fat, 4.0 g of saturated fat, 60 milligrams (mg) of 
cholesterol, or 480 mg of sodium, per reference amount customarily 
consumed, per label serving size, and, only for foods with reference 
amounts customarily consumed of 30 g or less or 2 tablespoons or less, 
per 50 g. For dehydrated foods that must have water added to them prior 
to typical consumption, the per 50-g criterion refers to the as prepared 
form. Any one of the levels, on a per reference amount customarily 
consumed, a per label serving size or, when applicable, a per 50 g 
basis, will disqualify a food from making a health claim unless an 
exception is provided in subpart E of this part, except that:
    (i) The levels for a meal product as defined in Sec.  101.13(l) are 
26.0 g of fat, 8.0 g of saturated fat, 120 mg of cholesterol, or 960 mg 
of sodium per label serving size, and
    (ii) The levels for a main dish product as defined in Sec.  
101.13(m) are 19.5 g of fat, 6.0 g of saturated fat, 90 mg of 
cholesterol, or 720 mg of sodium per label serving size.
    (5) Disease or health-related condition means damage to an organ, 
part, structure, or system of the body such that it does not function 
properly (e.g., cardiovascular disease), or a state of health leading to 
such dysfunctioning (e.g., hypertension); except that diseases resulting 
from essential nutrient deficiencies (e.g., scurvy, pellagra) are not 
included in this definition (claims pertaining to such diseases are 
thereby not subject to Sec.  101.14 or Sec.  101.70).
    (b) Eligibility. For a substance to be eligible for a health claim:
    (1) The substance must be associated with a disease or health-
related condition for which the general U.S. population, or an 
identified U.S. population subgroup (e.g., the elderly) is at risk, or, 
alternatively, the petition submitted by the proponent of the claim 
otherwise explains the prevalence of the disease or health-related 
condition

[[Page 63]]

in the U.S. population and the relevance of the claim in the context of 
the total daily diet and satisfies the other requirements of this 
section.
    (2) If the substance is to be consumed as a component of a 
conventional food at decreased dietary levels, the substance must be a 
nutrient listed in 21 U.S.C. 343(q)(1)(C) or (q)(1)(D), or one that the 
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required to be included in the 
label or labeling under 21 U.S.C. 343(q)(2)(A); or
    (3) If the substance is to be consumed at other than decreased 
dietary levels:
    (i) The substance must, regardless of whether the food is a 
conventional food or a dietary supplement, contribute taste, aroma, or 
nutritive value, or any other technical effect listed in Sec.  170.3(o) 
of this chapter, to the food and must retain that attribute when 
consumed at levels that are necessary to justify a claim; and
    (ii) The substance must be a food or a food ingredient or a 
component of a food ingredient whose use at the levels necessary to 
justify a claim has been demonstrated by the proponent of the claim, to 
FDA's satisfaction, to be safe and lawful under the applicable food 
safety provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.
    (c) Validity requirement. FDA will promulgate regulations 
authorizing a health claim only when it determines, based on the 
totality of publicly available scientific evidence (including evidence 
from well-designed studies conducted in a manner which is consistent 
with generally recognized scientific procedures and principles), that 
there is significant scientific agreement, among experts qualified by 
scientific training and experience to evaluate such claims, that the 
claim is supported by such evidence.
    (d) General health claim labeling requirements. (1) When FDA 
determines that a health claim meets the validity requirements of 
paragraph (c) of this section, FDA will propose a regulation in subpart 
E of this part to authorize the use of that claim. If the claim pertains 
to a substance not provided for in Sec.  101.9 or Sec.  101.36, FDA will 
propose amending that regulation to include declaration of the 
substance.
    (2) When FDA has adopted a regulation in subpart E of this part 
providing for a health claim, firms may make claims based on the 
regulation in subpart E of this part, provided that:
    (i) All label or labeling statements about the substance-disease 
relationship that is the subject of the claim are based on, and 
consistent with, the conclusions set forth in the regulations in subpart 
E of this part;
    (ii) The claim is limited to describing the value that ingestion (or 
reduced ingestion) of the substance, as part of a total dietary pattern, 
may have on a particular disease or health-related condition;
    (iii) The claim is complete, truthful, and not misleading. Where 
factors other than dietary intake of the substance affect the 
relationship between the substance and the disease or health-related 
condition, such factors may be required to be addressed in the claim by 
a specific regulation in subpart E of this part;
    (iv) All information required to be included in the claim appears in 
one place without other intervening material, except that the principal 
display panel of the label or labeling may bear the reference statement, 
``See ------ for information about the relationship between ------ and 
------,'' with the blanks filled in with the location of the labeling 
containing the health claim, the name of the substance, and the disease 
or health-related condition (e.g., ``See attached pamphlet for 
information about calcium and osteoporosis''), with the entire claim 
appearing elsewhere on the other labeling, Provided that, where any 
graphic material (e.g., a heart symbol) constituting an explicit or 
implied health claim appears on the label or labeling, the reference 
statement or the complete claim shall appear in immediate proximity to 
such graphic material;
    (v) The claim enables the public to comprehend the information 
provided and to understand the relative significance of such information 
in the context of a total daily diet; and
    (vi) If the claim is about the effects of consuming the substance at 
decreased dietary levels, the level of the substance in the food is 
sufficiently low to justify the claim. To meet this

[[Page 64]]

requirement, if a definition for use of the term low has been 
established for that substance under this part, the substance must be 
present at a level that meets the requirements for use of that term, 
unless a specific alternative level has been established for the 
substance in subpart E of this part. If no definition for ``low'' has 
been established, the level of the substance must meet the level 
established in the regulation authorizing the claim; or
    (vii) If the claim is about the effects of consuming the substance 
at other than decreased dietary levels, the level of the substance is 
sufficiently high and in an appropriate form to justify the claim. To 
meet this requirement, if a definition for use of the term high for that 
substance has been established under this part, the substance must be 
present at a level that meets the requirements for use of that term, 
unless a specific alternative level has been established for the 
substance in subpart E of this part. If no definition for ``high'' has 
been established (e.g., where the claim pertains to a food either as a 
whole food or as an ingredient in another food), the claim must specify 
the daily dietary intake necessary to achieve the claimed effect, as 
established in the regulation authorizing the claim; Provided That:
    (A) Where the food that bears the claim meets the requirements of 
paragraphs (d)(2)(vi) or (d)(2)(vii) of this section based on its 
reference amount customarily consumed, and the labeled serving size 
differs from that amount, the claim shall be followed by a statement 
explaining that the claim is based on the reference amount rather than 
the labeled serving size (e.g., ``Diets low in sodium may reduce the 
risk of high blood pressure, a disease associated with many factors. A 
serving of -- ounces of this product conforms to such a diet.'').
    (B) Where the food that bears the claim is sold in a restaurant or 
in other establishments in which food that is ready for immediate human 
consumption is sold, the food can meet the requirements of paragraphs 
(d)(2)(vi) or (d)(2)(vii) of this section if the firm that sells the 
food has a reasonable basis on which to believe that the food that bears 
the claim meets the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2)(vi) or (d)(2)(vii) 
of this section and provides that basis upon request.
    (3) Nutrition labeling shall be provided in the label or labeling of 
any food for which a health claim is made in accordance with Sec.  
101.9; for restaurant foods, in accordance with Sec.  101.10; or for 
dietary supplements, in accordance with Sec.  101.36.
    (e) Prohibited health claims. No expressed or implied health claim 
may be made on the label or in labeling for a food, regardless of 
whether the food is in conventional food form or dietary supplement 
form, unless:
    (1) The claim is specifically provided for in subpart E of this 
part; and
    (2) The claim conforms to all general provisions of this section as 
well as to all specific provisions in the appropriate section of subpart 
E of this part;
    (3) None of the disqualifying levels identified in paragraph (a)(4) 
of this section is exceeded in the food, unless specific alternative 
levels have been established for the substance in subpart E of this 
part; or unless FDA has permitted a claim despite the fact that a 
disqualifying level of a nutrient is present in the food based on a 
finding that such a claim will assist consumers in maintaining healthy 
dietary practices, and, in accordance with the regulation in subpart E 
of this part that makes such a finding, the label bears a disclosure 
statement that complies with Sec.  101.13(h), highlighting the nutrient 
that exceeds the disqualifying level;
    (4) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(3) of this section, no 
substance is present at an inappropriate level as determined in the 
specific provision authorizing the claim in subpart E of this part;
    (5) The label does not represent or purport that the food is for 
infants and toddlers less than 2 years of age except if the claim is 
specifically provided for in subpart E of this part; and
    (6) Except for dietary supplements or where provided for in other 
regulations in part 101, subpart E, the food contains 10 percent or more 
of the Reference Daily Intake or the Daily Reference Value for vitamin 
A, vitamin C,

[[Page 65]]

iron, calcium, protein, or fiber per reference amount customarily 
consumed prior to any nutrient addition.
    (f) The requirements of this section do not apply to:
    (1) Infant formulas subject to section 412(h) of the Federal Food, 
Drug, and Cosmetic Act, and
    (2) Medical foods defined by section 5(b) of the Orphan Drug Act.
    (g) Applicability. The requirements of this section apply to foods 
intended for human consumption that are offered for sale, regardless of 
whether the foods are in conventional food form or dietary supplement 
form.

[58 FR 2533, Jan. 6, 1993; 58 FR 17097, Apr. 1, 1993, as amended at 58 
FR 44038, Aug. 18, 1993; 59 FR 425, Jan. 4, 1994; 59 FR 15050, Mar. 31, 
1994; 61 FR 40332, Aug. 2, 1996; 62 FR 49867, Sept. 23, 1997; 63 FR 
26980, May 15, 1998; 66 FR 17358, Mar. 30, 2001]





Additives that reference this regulation:


Source: U.S. Code of Federal Regulations - CFR Title 21, Part 101, Section 14


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